coffee drinks

Types of Coffee and Coffee Drinks

Café con Leche – Portuguese and Spanish dark coffee with sugar and milk;

Demi-crème – coffee with cream and milk in equal proportions;

Granita de Caffe – cold espresso served with ice;

Irish coffee – coffee with alcohol and whipped cream, which is served is special Irish glasses;

Glace – cold coffee with ice-cream ball, which is served in special Irish glasses with drinking straw;

Doppio – double espresso;

Cappuccino – coffee with whipped hot milk and bushy, silky milk-coffee foam. It got its name thanks to monks of Capuchin order, who, according to the legend, were the first who devised to add a whipped milk to coffee. Cappuccino is the most popular drink in coffee bars. The portion of cappuccino is usually 150 millilitres. The recommended temperature of serving is 60-70 degrees. Often a cinnamon or cocoa is sifted on the cappuccino.

American coffee – coffee that is prepared in a coffee maker with a drip filter, which works on the gravity principle: hot water is dripping in the funnel with a filter containing ground coffee. The most used coffee is Arabica. This coffee is usually drunk from large mugs. This coffee is popular not only in America, but also in Scandinavian countries.

Corretto coffee – espresso with alcohol. In northern Italy this coffee is prepared during the winter, adding grappa. In Ireland, in order to warm up, they drink coffee with Irish whiskey.

Eastern coffee – black coffee with a thick layer of foam. This coffee is prepared in special Turkish coffee pot or in cezve on sand, on fire, or on a hot plate. Often spices like cardamom and cinnamon are used to prepare Eastern coffee.

Latte – coffee cocktail that is made from one part of espresso and two part of heated milk with foam. “Latte” in Italian means “milk”. Latte is served in Irish glass or in some other high glass with a straw. For better aroma of hot or cool latte often different syrups are added. Latte foam is often decorated with drawings, which is called latte-art.

Latte macchiato – unmixed cappuccino where the milk, the milk foam, and coffee are set in layers. “Macchiato” in Italian means “speckled”. Latte macchiato is served in a high glass.

Lungo – coffee that is not as strong as espresso thanks to the large amount of water in the cup, which is usually 50 – 60 millilitres. The amount of ground coffee is 7 grams. This coffee is stronger than American coffee. “Lungo” in Italian means “long”.

Mokko – coffee with chocolate.

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coffee beauty

Coffee for Beauty

It is not a secret that coffee has an unforgettable and unique aroma and flavour, which makes it a favourite hot drink of millions of people all around the world. Coffee has also body toning and arousing features, but it can also bring benefits to our skin if we pamper it with masks, lotions, and other cosmetic products containing coffee. In recent times, a large part of specialists accent the good qualities of coffee in the field of nutrition, but recommendations to completely abandon the use of coffee there have been more and more rarely. Also cosmetologists begin to look at the good qualities of coffee.

It is clear that the coffee contains not only caffeine, but also such substances as acids, fats, alkaloids, minerals, iron, magnesium, and potassium. For example, coffee oil is saturated with an acid that delays skin aging and increases its elasticity. Returning to the positive qualities of caffeine, which can bring benefits to our skin, it should be mentioned that it tones the skin, improves blood circulation in tissues as well as stimulates several biochemical and physiological processes in the body, for example, fat splitting. Because of this, coffee can be found in most anti-cellulite creams, lotions, gels, and serums.

Everybody can prepare coffee lotion at home, which has refreshing effect. Boil strong coffee, pour it into ice cube tray, and clean your face with these ice cubes daily, toning and refreshing your face skin. In addition, there is pleasant coffee aroma on the skin for some time after usage. Another way how to tone up the skin with coffee is as follows: every morning or evening clean your skin with a cotton swab that is moistened in strong, fresh coffee. This procedure is particularly suitable for old and sapless skin. It should be mentioned that this procedure may give your skin a darker shade, allowing you not to use other tinting products or sunbathe in the sun or solarium.

In order to reduce wrinkles, mix one tablespoon of rye flour with a strong, cool coffee, adding one egg yolk and mixing it until it reaches creamy consistency. Apply this mask on your face and rinse it off after 15 minutes.
To fight the cellulite, take warm coffee grounds and rub them in problem zones. For better effect you can wrap these zones into food wrapping film and leave them for 20 minutes, at the end of the procedure using some massager. After 20 minutes, remove the film and rinse coffee grounds off with warm shower. To achieve some results, it is recommended to perform this procedure at least 2 times a week.

Any scrub facilitates removal of dead skin cells and moisturises the skin. To prepare coffee scrub, mix one tablespoon of ground coffee with 2 tablespoons of sour cream, or mix one tablespoon of honey with half teaspoon of ground coffee.

To recover the lost sheen of dark hair, mix 2 egg yolks with one tablespoon of rum and 2 tablespoons of warm water, and add one tablespoon of ground coffee and one tablespoon of vegetable oil. Strand by strand daub your hair with this mixture, leave it for 5 minutes and then rinse it off. In order to gain this effect faster, cool unsweetened, strong coffee and pour it into the pulveriser. Spray it on the hair and thoroughly comb your hair curls, repeating the procedure if necessary. The result of this procedure is bright and saturated hair colour, and shiny hair.

coffee grounds

Where Else to Use Coffee Grounds?

Those who drink coffee know how much coffee grounds are throw out into drains every day and every week. It is useful to collect the coffee grounds because it can be reused for many different purposes. Let’s look at the best known applications of coffee grounds.

Coffee grounds in beauty

If you have sensitive skin, try to make a scrub of coffee grounds. Components of this scrub can be different, but the main component is coffee grounds. For example, mix coffee grounds with honey and add a little bit of olive oil. Coffee grounds not only rub off dead skin cells, but also improve blood circulation as well as help fight against cellulite. Scrub that is made from coffee grounds can be used both for body and face.

For hair rinsing

Women who have dark hair can rinse their hair in coffee grounds. Because of coffee hair become more shiny and obtain more intensive tone. If used regularly, it can also fight dandruff. To make a solution for hair rinsing, pour 2 tablespoons of ground coffee with 1 litre of hot water. Rinse your hair when the water has cooled.

Snails are afraid of coffee

As it turns out, coffee grounds are very useful in garden work as well. For example, coffee grounds are very effective snail repellents. They are used scattering them on plants where the snails are living. Experience shows that snails are lost for long time after that.

Plants like coffee

Taking into account that coffee grounds contain a lot of valuable substances, they can be used as plants mulch. They can also be composted. Coffee grounds will be great for plants that like acidic soil, for example, for gardenia, conifers, and azaleas. Coffee gives additional nitrogen. But do not overstate – coffee grounds can be scattered around plants once in a month, and then they can be watered.

Coffee against different insects

The strong aroma of coffee deters different insects, starting with ants and finishing with drosophila. Also garden insects do not like aroma or coffee, therefore scatter the coffee grounds everywhere, where it is necessary.

Coffee against smells

Ground coffee is great against smelly fridge. Put in the fridge a little, opened container with coffee grounds, and the problem will be resolved very soon. This method can be used for wardrobe and shoe shelf as well.

Coffee grounds as cleaning agent

It is recommended to wash glassware with coffee grounds – they do not scratch the glass, but effectively cleans fats and sludges. Coffee grounds can also be used for scrubbing of dirty surfaces.


Negative Effects of Coffee

The symptoms of caffeine overdoes are restlessness, anxiety, trembling, and sweating. Large amount of caffeine speeds up the heart rate and can even cause cardiac arrhythmias. Caffeine reduces the blood flow to the heart and can be one of the reasons of heart failure. It also increases the amount of fatty acids in the blood.

If the coffee drinking is exaggerated (4 or more cups of coffee a day), it can cause insomnia and constant fatigue, because the body is no longer able to perceive the coffee as invigorating and energizing drink, but gets tired of it. As a result, it may be difficult to fall asleep in the evening, and you can wake up at night, not being able to fall asleep again.

Scientists have figured out that drinking 3 or more cups of coffee a day, quality of sperm significantly worsens, so there may be difficulties with conceiving. You should be careful if you use some medications, as, for example, analgesic and antipyretic agent “Paracetamol” significantly strengthens the effects of coffee, and other medications that contain paracetamol in combination with large amounts of caffeine can cause serious liver damages.

Coffee can greatly change the mood – if you drink more than 3 to 4 cups of coffee a day (500 and more milligrams of caffeine a day), your brain activity, reaction speed, and concentration will be highly activated, causing sudden mood fluctuations, bursts of anger, or in stark contrast – a sudden and unexplainable phlegm.

Coffee has harmful effects on the kidneys and increases the urine output. Using coffee, the body with the urine loses more calcium, so it is very important to consume products that contain calcium, for example, milk and its products, thereby compensating its loss.

Scientists have figured out the fact that coffee drinkers are at greater risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis – arthritis is systematically flammable disorders of leg and arm small joints, which causes erosion of bones and cartilages or, in other words, depletion of cells. Once again, it should be mentioned that the amount of coffee is the most important, as those who drink 4 or more cups of coffee a day have greater risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis. The amount like this increases the chance of developing the disease by 15 or even more times, compared to people who do not use coffee at all.

Frequent coffee drinking makes our teeth yellowish as well as adversely affects the colour of skin.


Positive Effects of Coffee

Caffeine, which is found in the coffee, affects the brain – it increases mental work capacity, speeds up the reaction, increases energy and endurance, as well as stimulates physical activity. Drinking two cups of coffee every day, it stimulates the part of brain, which is responsible for short-term memory and ability to concentrate.

Two cups of coffee have positive effects on glucose metabolism as well, therefore it can reduce the risk of type II diabetes, and it also can reduce the risk of cervical cancer, but it does not mean that by increasing the amount of coffee these processes will be even more successful. Too much coffee or too much caffeine can cause anxiety, chills, and shivering.

Coffee is able to normalize low blood pressure, but people with high blood pressure should be careful with the usage of coffee. While two cups of coffee a day do not cause heart damages, regularly using this drink, in 60% of cases blood pressure may gradually rise.

Scientists have discovered evidences that caffeine stimulates hair growth, reduces different allergic reactions, and contains vitamin P, which strengthens capillaries and reduces the permeability of blood vessel walls thus strengthening them.

About three cups of coffee a day reduces the risk of gallstones, which is the result of crystallization of cholesterol. One cup of coffee a day is enough to reduce the risk of kidney stones by 10%. Studies of USA and Japan show that coffee is a powerful agent against liver cirrhosis – it is proven that drinking 3 – 4 cups of coffee every day a possibility of liver cirrhosis is for 80% lower than without coffee at all.

Drinking 3 – 4 cups of coffee a day you protect yourself against colon cancer, as coffee promotes colon’s operational activity and reduces the activity of negative micro-organisms.

Scientists have figured out that regular drinking of coffee reduces the risk of Parkinson’s disease by 50% – 80%. Parkinson’s disease is a disease of central nervous system, which causes disorders of speech and movement as well as causes trembling. Coffee also helps asthma patients – even one cup of coffee a day can reduce the symptoms of asthma. Regular usage of coffee can reduce expressions of asthma attacks by up to 25%.

People often discuss about coffee drinking during pregnancy – whether the pregnant should stop drinking coffee, or it is allowed to drink coffee during pregnancy. There are a lot of researches done in order to find an answer to these questions, and scientists have found that it is allowed to drink coffee during pregnancy if a woman has drunk coffee before pregnancy. However, it is not recommended to drink more than 2 – 3 cups of coffee a day (300 to 400 mg of caffeine a day). It would be wrong to start drink coffee during pregnancy, if a woman has not drunk it before pregnancy. Women, who have had the miscarriage, should avoid coffee, as there is a risk of repeated miscarriage. When breastfeeding a baby, a woman can drink coffee, but in small quantities, and it is better to drink coffee in the morning than in the evening, as mother’s milk contains caffeine, causing baby an anxiety and insomnia.

ground instant coffee

Instant Coffee or Ground Coffee – Which to Choose?

We drink coffee in order to get enjoyment, liveliness, and energy. We also like to drink a cup of coffee during leisurely conversations. And all of this is possible thanks to good, high-quality, and aromatic coffee.

Why Does Coffee Has So Many Types?

Nowadays, there are available more than 200 different types of coffee. Basically, the most frequently we hear a word “Arabica” – it is so called Arabic coffee or, in other words, robust coffee. Arabica coffee is more valuable coffee, and it has a deeper flavour. It is considered to be an elite coffee, therefore it will always be more expensive as a robust coffee. Robust coffee contains more caffeine, therefore in the morning in order to get the liveliness, drink this coffee. The best Arabica coffees are united under the name “mild”. Coffee of this class is grown only in plantations, which are located at least 500 metres above sea level.

One of the oldest coffee varieties is mocha. Today the majority of coffee varieties are produced from mocha. Of course, there are other, no less quality coffee varieties as well, for example, inexpensive Indian or Brazilian coffee with a strong aroma and a pleasant bitterness. There is also saturated Java coffee, which has a chocolate flavour. Sumatran coffee differs from other coffee varieties with its bread taste. A unique variety is Sulawesi colossus, which has special taste because of its special processing.

There are so many different varieties because even Arabica coffee acquires other characteristics of taste and aroma in each place, which depends not only on production process, but also on growing process, environment, and even water quality. That is why coffee usually has the name, which contains the name of valley, mountain, city, country, or other place, where it is grown or produced.

Ground Coffee or Instant Coffee?

There is no doubt that only natural coffee has the best taste and the best aroma. Ground coffee and coffee beans are considered to be natural coffee. Ground coffee usually is a mix of different coffee varieties. Ground coffee can be divided in several types: coffee with caffeine, coffee without caffeine, flavoured coffee, or unflavoured coffee. Artificial flavours can be added to coffee as well – the vast majority of coffee drinkers prefer vanilla-nut flavour, but the real coffee lovers prefer coffee with no added artificial flavour, therefore – unflavoured coffee.

Talking about such eternal questions as which coffee to prefer – ground coffee or coffee beans, pre-packaged or by weight – , coffee lovers say that the most delicious coffee can be made from coffee beans, which are sold by weight. The most delicious coffee is coffee from coffee beans, and also coffee aroma after grinding of coffee beans will persist for up to two hours in the room. Specialists say that to find a coffee, which corresponds to your idea of coffee aroma and taste, you must use the method of trials and mistakes, therefore, you just have to try, try, and try.

Do You Like Instant Coffee?

Instant coffee is a very popular product, which helps to save time of coffee lovers. There is an opinion that instant coffee is worse than natural coffee because the product is the result of chemical synthesis. But it is not! The taste of instant coffee, of course, differs from the taste of natural coffee, but in the extraction process of instant process producers use the same natural beans that are used in the extraction process of ground coffee. There are three types of instant coffee – granular, powdered, and sublimated coffee. The last one is the most expensive, but it is also the most qualitative.

It is difficult to falsify sublimed coffee, as there is not less caffeine than in the natural coffee. Granules of granular coffee must be large and compact, and they have to be light brown. Dark colour is a sign of over-roasting. Pay attention to the date of preparation of instant coffee, as from that date the aging process of coffee begins. Buy and drink some coffee, which is recommended by other people.


Coffee’s Effect on Health

A word “coffee” comes from Kaffa Province in Ethiopia. The local people were using coffee as a food. Mixing a pulp of green coffee peas with animal fat they were making balls, which they were using as a food in long trips.

The big interest of researchers, manufacturers, and coffee lovers creates a lot of questions – is coffee healthy or unhealthy, what is recommended dosage of coffee, what are coffee consumption limitations? Not so long ago it was considered that only because of caffeine coffee has an impact on human health, but the newest researches show have shown that there are a lot of other elements, which have some impact on human health, as well. For example, substances that are forming during pyrolysis or, in other words, during coffee roasting.

From all types of coffee the biggest amount of caffeine is found in instant coffee, regardless of what breed it is made. It is known, that caffeine has an effect on cerebral cortex. Caffeine stimulates physical activity, increases ability to work as well as shortens reaction time. Absorption of caffeine in the body depends on the way the coffee is prepared. If you drink coffee with sugar or, in other words, unfiltered coffee, absorption speed significantly decreases.

Caffeine also increases the amount of fatty acids in blood, therefore it is recommended to avoid instant coffee – sludge of instant coffee usually contains lipids (fats that reside in blood), but also filtered coffee may leave a greasy layer on mug’s walls.

Not everybody knows that an equal portion of tea contains almost twice as much caffeine than coffee, but in the cup of tea we find two times less caffeine than in the same size coffee cup. Actually there are no paradoxes – in order to make a cup of tea we take a small amount of tea if we compare it with an amount of coffee. To make a cup of coffee we use approximately 10 to 12 grams of coffee, but to make the same amount of tea we use a couple of tea leaves. Because of that a cup of coffee contains approximately 0,2 grams of caffeine, but a cup of strong tea contains only 0,1 grams of caffeine. Another alkaloid of coffee is trigonelin, which has tonic effect, but it also has an important role in the making of coffee taste and smell.

It is harmful to use coffee in big amounts because:

  • Coffee increases blood pressure;
  • It is recommended to avoid coffee if you have gastritis or peptic ulcer;
  • Coffee harms kidneys, therefore it is recommended to avoid coffee if you have problematic kidneys;
  • Coffee causes an excitation, therefore it is not recommended to use it before sleep, as you will not be able to fall asleep;
  • It is not recommended to drink coffee fasting,
  • It is not recommended to drink coffee in empty stomach, as it is absorbed only within 10 minutes;
  • Coffee increases urine output, therefore you have to be careful if you have problems with urinary incontinence;
  • Frequent drinking of coffee makes tooth enamel yellow;
  • Also appearance of skin colour becomes worse because of coffee consumption.

Despite of negative effects, coffee has also positive effects:

  • Coffee contains vitamin P, which strengthens vascular walls;
  • Coffee has an antihistamine-like effect – it decreases allergic reactions;
  • Coffee is an excellent antidepressant, therefore it is recommended to use it if you have suicidality.